Davydov V. N. The Use of Resources by Local People in Chukotka in the Context of Socio-Economic Changes

VLADIMIR N. DAVYDOV — Candidate of Social Sciences, PhD in Anthropology, Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography (Kunstkamera) of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Russia, St. Petersburg) E-mail: davydov.kunstkamera@gmail.com

 

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ABSTRACT. The resources used by local people in Chukotka include numerous elements which can be combined to facilitate the process of the landscape appropriation in harsh environmental conditions. This system is subject to constant changes: some materials and energy sources can be replaced by other sources. Material objects can be described as a complex system which reacts to various changes in the economy and politics by incorporating various kinds of inventions and innovations. The process of distribution of things and infrastructure in space creates certain energy regimes — the ways of how local people use and preserve resources. Resource utilization in Chukotka has always occurred within the framework of socio-economic transformations in the context of the relative autonomy of the local people. Chukchi reindeer herders, living and working in conditions of considerable remoteness from the places of resource distribution, have developed skills of autonomous existence in the tundra. Ways of space appropriation by the local people in Chukotka should be analyzed from the point of view of the strategy of energy conservation, minimization of its consumption in the conditions of continuous autonomy. The use of technical equipment and infrastructure today has become an integral part of Chukchi reindeer herders’ space appropriation technologies and gradually increased their dependence on the resources, which are delivered from the outside. The transport infrastructure has had a significant impact on their mobility practices, providing new opportunities for movement, storage and exchange, intensifying mobility in certain places and slightly changing nomadic routes.

KEYWORDS: Chukotka, Iul’tinskii district, Amguema Tundra, infrastructure, use of resources, energy regime, minimalism, autonomy, innovations

 

УДК 397.4(571.511)
DOI 10.31250/2618-8619-2019-1(3)-162-170

 

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